What is the adrenal gland?

The adrenal, or suprarenal, glands are located on the top of each kidney. You have two adrenal glands, (one above each kidney) that produce hormones that give instructions to virtually every organ and tissue in your body.

What is the function of the adrenal glands?

They produce hormones that regulate blood pressure, body metabolism and sex hormones. They also produce adrenaline and nor adrenaline responsible for the fight or flight response.

What causes adrenal gland disorders?

Adrenal gland disorders occur when your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol.

What are the common signs and symptoms of adrenal gland disorders?

Cushing’s syndrome:-
•    Upper body obesity, round face and neck, and thinning arms and legs
•    Skin problems, such as acne or reddish-blue streaks on the abdomen or underarm area
•    High blood pressure
•    Muscle and bone weakness
•    Moodiness, irritability, or depression
•    High blood sugars
•    Slow growth rates in children
Addison’s disease:-
•    Weight loss
•    Weakness
•    Extreme fatigue
•    Nausea and/or vomiting
•    Low blood pressure
•    Patches of darker skin
•    Dizziness upon standing
•    Depression

What is a pheochromocytoma?

 A pheochromocytoma is a rare, usually noncancerous (benign) tumor that develops in cells in the center of an adrenal gland. It’s a small vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla, causing irregular secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to attacks of raised blood pressure, palpitations, and headache.

What is the treatment for adrenal gland disorders?

Treatment is through medication or surgery.
Adrenalectomy - an operation to remove the adrenal gland. There are two types of adrenalectomy: -open and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Open adrenalectomy uses a large incision. The laparoscopic or minimally invasive approaches use multiple small incisions and a camera to remove the adrenal gland.


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