The thyroid is a gland located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam's apple, wrapped around the trachea (windpipe).Its function is to make and store hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy.
Goiter is swelling (enlargement) of the thyroid gland that occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism)
All types of disorders are due to an overproduction or underproduction of thyroid hormones.
Not all goiters cause signs and symptoms. When they do occur they may include:
- A visible swelling at the base of your neck that may be particularly obvious when you shave or put on makeup
- A tight feeling in your throat
- Difficulty swallowing
- Difficulty breathing
Diagnosis of thyroid disorders is done though:-
- Examining the patient’s medical history, family history and clinical presentation.
- Physical examination especially the Heart rate and Blood pressure.
- Blood tests to determine the levels of thyroid hormone and Thyroid Stimulating hormone.
- Radioiodine uptake tests: - to determine whether the thyroid are underactive or overactive.
- Thyroid computerized topographic scans
- Ultrasound to differentiate between fluid filled and solid nodules.
- Biopsy tests to determine if a nodule is malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous).
Goiter is treated through medication and surgical removal of the thyroid gland; open or laparoscopic surgery.